The Cult of Mao


Máo Zédōng (毛泽东), more widely-known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary, political theorist and the founding father of the People’s Republic of China. He was a leader who, despite some very questionable policies, engendered great respect and adulation from the Chinese people in the middle of the last century, becoming a symbolic figure both in China and the global communist movement as a whole.


This is perhaps the most common image of Chairman Mao, and can be seen in the huge portrait overhanging the entrance to the Forbidden City next to Tian’anmen Square in Beijing.

Mao (1893 –1976) was the figurehead of the Communist revolution, leading the Chinese Communist Party as well as the military campaign against the Nationalists. His philosophy, Mao Zedong Thought, was the new regime’s official ideology and until the disastrous Great Leap Forward, he was the single most powerful person in the country. If we add his monstrous ego to this situation we can see that the origins of a personality cult were already well established by the 1950s. There were numerous 20th century precedents to draw upon – Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin, Ho Chi Minh, not to mention China’s imperial traditions. Mao himself said at the 1958 Party congress in Chengdu that personality cults were “healthy”, provided they worshipped great leaders: “There are two kinds of personality cults,” He said, “One is a healthy personality cult, that is, to worship men like Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Stalin. Because they hold the truth in their hands. The other is a false personality cult, i.e. non-analytical and blind worship. ”

The real acceleration in the formation of the Cult of Mao came with the formation of the Red Guards in the 1960s. The children of the 1950s had been raised to love and honor Mao, and in the following decade this devotion manifested into a personality cult that would influence every aspect of Chinese life. The children did not remember the immense starvation and suffering caused by Mao's Great Leap Forward, and their thoughts of Mao were almost unanimously positive. Thus, they became his greatest supporters. Pro-Mao figures utilized this groundswell of energy to construct a near-religious devotion to the leader. It helped cement Mao’s place as national leader until his death in 1976.

During the 1950s Mao had always featured in some of the Party and military propaganda but in the decade following it was rare for a poster not to contain his image. He was represented in a variety of forms: as military leader, an economic strategist, a teacher, a kindly uncle or father figure. The young Mao was portrayed as the architect and the hero of the revolution, from the Long March to the assumption of power in Tian’anmen Square, and the older Mao was the ‘great helmsman’, steering the new China to progress and prosperity. It became commonplace for Chinese homes to have a portrait of Mao displayed in a prominent place (indeed, not having such a portrait was sometimes interpreted as a sense of disloyalty or in indicator of ‘rightist’ leanings). The phrase ‘Long Live Chairman Mao for ten thousand years’ was commonly heard - traditionally a phrase reserved for the reigning Emperor. The cult of Mao also had its own bible: the infamous “Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong”, more commonly known as the ‘little red book’. Compiled and edited by Mao’s second in command, Lín Biāo (林彪), it contains 427 quotations from Mao organized into 33 chapters, each dealing with an important aspect of society, politics or individual behavior. Its content is not particularly significant (many of the quotes are ambiguous and some are virtually meaningless) but that did not prevent the book having a huge impact on the lives of millions of Chinese. It was published in a format small enough to be carried in a pocket at all times. During the Cultural Revolution it was expected that everyone has their own copy and carry it with them at all times; not producing it on demand for a band of Red Guards would result in punishment. These ranged from verbal harassment to a beating or even a prison sentence. Study of the book’s content took place in schools, factories, work groups and peasant collectives. The ‘little red book’ was also intended for global consumption: it is believed that five billion copies of this small softcover text were eventually printed across 500 editions and in 50 languages.

Even today, there are many Chinese people who regard Mao as a God-like figure and almost 3 million people a year make the pilgrimage to the former leader's birthplace in the tiny village of Sháoshān (韶山), Hunan Province. His victories and achievements are glorified but his catastrophic policies which resulted in the destruction of millions of families and thousands of years of culture are seldom mentioned.

The posters below were printed in China about 40 to 50 years ago. In the decades since, dramatic changes have taken place in almost every sphere of Chinese society, but these posters show just how highly Mao was regarded at the time, and the extent of the personality cult that arose around him.


Chairman Mao inspects the Cultural Revolution army! (Máo Zhǔxí jiǎnyuè wénhuà gémìng dàjūn!毛主席检阅文化革命大军!) 


Warmly celebrate the start of the Fourth National People’s Congress! (Rèliè qìngzhù dìsìjiè quánguó rénmín dàibiǎo dàhuì shènglì zhàokāi!热烈庆祝第四届全国人民代表大会胜利召开!)


Cheer for the victory of Mao’s revolutionary route. (Huānhū Máo Zhǔxí gémìng lùxiàn de wěidà shènglì; 欢呼毛主席革命路线的伟大胜利)

Left: Make the past serve the present and the foreign serve China (gǔ wéi jīn yòng,yáng wéi zhōng yòng; 古为今用,洋为中用).
Right: Let a hundred flowers blossom; weed through the old to bring forth the new (bǎi huā qí fàng,tuī chén chū xīn; 百花齐放,推陈出新).

Cheer for the world`s entry into the new era of Mao Zedong Thought. (Huānhū shìjiè jìnrù Máo Zédōng sīxiǎng de xīn shídài!欢呼世界进入毛泽东思想的新时代!)

Mao waves to his Red Guards.

Be forever loyal to Chairman Mao`s revolutionary route. (Yǒngyuǎn zhōngyú Máo Zhǔxí de gémìng lùxiàn; 永远忠于毛主席的革命路线)

Long live the people! (Rénmín wànsuì; 人民万岁) – Mao Zedong

The Red Sun brightens the stage of workers, peasants and soldiers. (Hóng tàiyáng zhàoliàng le gōngnóngbīng wǔtái; 红太阳照亮了工农兵舞台)

Long live the total victory of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. (Wúchǎn jiējí wénhuà dà gémìng quánmiàn shènglì wànsuì; 无产阶级文化大革命全面胜利万岁)

Navigating the seas depends on the helmsman, implementing revolution depends on Mao Zedong Thought (1969) (dàhǎi hángxíng kào duòshǒu,gàn gémìng kào Máo Zédōng sīxiǎng; 大海航行靠舵手,干革命靠毛泽东思想)

Navigating the seas depends on the helmsman, implementing revolution depends on Mao Zedong Thought (1969) (dàhǎi hángxíng kào duòshǒu,gàn gémìng kào Máo Zédōng sīxiǎng; 大海航行靠舵手,干革命靠毛泽东思想)

Endlessly loyal to the great leader Chairman Mao, Endlessly loyal to the great Mao Zedong Thought, Endlessly loyal to Chairman Mao's revolutionary route (1966) (wúxiàn zhōngyú wěidà de lǐngxiù Máo Zhǔxí,wúxiàn zhōngyú wěidà de Máo Zédōng sīxiǎng,wúxiàn zhōngyú Máo Zhǔxí de gémìng lùxiàn; 无限忠于伟大的领袖毛主席,无限忠于伟大的毛泽东思想,无限忠于毛主席的革命路线)


Great mentor, Great leader, Great commander, Great helmsman - Long live Chairman Mao (1967) (wěidà de dǎoshī,wěidà de lǐngxiù,wěidà de tǒngshuài,wěidà de duòshǒu,Máo Zhǔxí wànsuì; 伟大的导师,伟大的领袖,伟大的统帅,伟大的舵手,毛主席万岁)

Forging red hearts in the vast land (1970) (guǎngkuò tiāndì liàn hóngxīn; 广阔天地炼红心)

Forging red hearts by joining the army (1971) (qiānlǐ yěyíng liàn hóngxīn; 千里野营炼红心)


Chairman Mao goes to Anyuan, by Liu Chunhua (1968) (Máo Zhǔxí qù Ānyuán; 毛主席去安源)
Comrade Mao Zedong is the greatest Marxist-Leninist of the contemporary age. (1969) (Máo Zédōng tóngzhì shì dāngdài zuì wěidà de Mǎkèsī Lièníng zhǔyìzhě; 毛泽东同志是当代最伟大的马克思列宁主义者)

Turn China into a prosperous, rich and powerful industrialized socialist country under the leadership of the Communist Party and Chairman Mao!  (1954) (Zài Gòngchǎndǎng hé Máo Zhǔxí lǐngdǎo xià,bǎ Zhōngguó jiànshè chéngwéi yīgè fánróng fùqiáng de shèhuì zhǔyì gōngyèhuà guójiā!在共产党和毛主席领导下,把中国建设成为一个繁荣富强的社会主义工业化国家!)

Chairman Mao brings us a happy life  (1954) (Máo Zhǔxí gěi wǒmen de xìngfú shēnghuó; 毛主席给我们的幸福生活)


Long live Chairman Mao!  (1954) (Máo Zhǔxí wànsuì!Wàn wànsuì!毛主席万岁!万万岁!)

Warriors love reading Chairman Mao's books the most  (1966) (Zhànshì zuì ài dú Máo Zhǔxí de shū; 战士最爱读毛主席的书)

A happy voyage (1971) (xìngfú de hángchéng; 幸福的航程)

Follow the Communist Party forever, follow Chairman Mao forever. (Early 1970s) (Yǒngyuǎn gēnzhe Gòngchǎndǎng,yǒngyuǎn gēnzhe Máo Zhǔxí; 永远跟着共产党,永远跟着毛主席)

New Spring (early 1970s) (xīn chūn; 新春)

The sunlight of Mao Zedong Thought illuminates the road of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966) (Máo Zédōng sīxiǎng de yángguāng zhàoliàng wúchǎn jiējí wénhuà dà gémìng de dàolù; 毛泽东思想的阳光照亮无产阶级文化大革命的道路)

Reporting to Chairman Mao (1974) (Xiàng Máo Zhǔxí huìbào; 向毛主席汇报)

Chairman Mao writes an inscription in the Jinsui Border Area (1972) (Máo Zhǔxí zài Jìnsuí biānqū tící; 毛主席在晋绥边区题词)


The working class must exercise leadership in everything (1970) (Gōngrén jiējí bìxū lǐngdǎo yīqiē; 工人阶级必须领导一切)

 The hearts of the sons and daughters of Yan'an are devoted to Chairman Mao (1974) (Yán’ān érnǚ xīnxiàng Máo Zhǔxí; 延安儿女心向毛主席)

Advance victoriously while following Chairman Mao's revolutionary route in literature and the arts (1968) (Yánzhe Máo Zhǔxí de gémìng wényì lùxiàn shènglì qiánjìn; 沿着毛主席的革命文艺路线胜利前进)

Respectfully wish Chairman Mao eternal life! (1968) (Jìngzhù Máo Zhǔxí wànshòu wújiāng; 敬祝毛主席万寿无疆)

Forging ahead courageously while closely following the great leader Chairman Mao (1969) (Jǐngēn wěidà lǐngxiù Máo Zhǔxí fènyǒng qiánjìn!紧跟伟大领袖毛主席奋勇前进!)


The growth of all things depends on the sun (early 1970s) (Wànwù shēngzhǎng kào tàiyáng; 万物生长靠太阳)

Closely follow the great leader Chairman Mao and forge ahead courageously amid great winds and waves (1969) (Jǐngēn wěidà lǐngxiù Máo Zhǔxí zài dàfēng dàlàng zhōng fènyǒng qiánjìn; 紧跟伟大领袖毛主席在大风大浪中奋勇前进)


Advance through wind and waves (1974) (Zài dàfēng dàlàng zhōng qiánjìn;在大风大浪中前进)

Remember the first anniversary of Chairman Mao's swim across the Yangtze River.
Follow Chairman Mao to advance in great winds and waves! (1967) (Jìniàn Máo Zhǔxí chàngyóu Chángjiāng yī zhōunián. Gēnzhe Máo Zhǔxí zài dàfēng dàlàng zhōng qiánjìn!纪念毛主席畅游长江一周年。跟着毛主席在大风大浪中前进!)

Crossing the great Yangtze River (1976) (Wànlǐ Chángjiāng héngdù; 万里长江横渡)


Commemorate the tenth anniversary of the great leader Chairman Mao’s swim across the Yangtze River on July 16, 1966 (1976) (Jìniàn wěidà lǐngxiù Máo Zhǔxí qī yāo liù chàngyóu Chángjiāng shí zhōunián; 纪念伟大领袖毛主席七一六畅游长江十周年)

Chairman Mao's writings shine like gold (1977) (máo zhǔ xí zhe zuò shǎn jīn guāng毛主席著作闪金光)

What I longed for has arrived (1978) (Pàn dào le; 盼到了)

The radiance of Mao Zedong Thought eternally illuminates the nation. Warmly celebrate the publication of the fifth volume of the Selected Works of Mao Zedong (1977) (Máo Zédōng sīxiǎng de guānghuī yǒngyuǎn pǔzhào zǔguó dàdì. Rèliè qìngzhù Máo Zédōng Xuǎnjí dìwǔjuàn chūbǎn; 毛泽东思想的光辉永远普照祖国大地。热烈庆祝《毛泽东选集》第五卷出版)

The shared wish of one billion people. Warmly welcome the publication of the fifth volume of the Selected Works of Mao Zedong (1977) (Yìwàn rénmín de gòngtóng xīnyuàn. Rèliè huānhū Máo Zédōng Xuǎnjí dìwǔjuàn chūbǎn; 亿万人民的共同心愿。热烈欢呼《毛泽东选集》第五卷出版)

The Central People's Government is the only legitimate government of the People's Republic of China (1950) (Zhōngyāng rénmín zhèngfǔ wéi dàibiǎo Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó quánguó rénmín de wéiyī héfǎ zhèngfǔ; 中央人民政府为代表中华人民共和国全国人民的唯一合法政府)

Celebrating the People's Republic of China's National Day (1950) (Qìngzhù Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Guóqìng Jié; 庆祝中华人民共和国国庆节)

Family members, relatives and friends of criminal secret agents, you must be watchful and urge criminals to register and turn over a new leaf! (1950) (Fěitè fènzǐ de jiāshǔ qīnpéng, yīng dūcù fànzuìzhě, dēngjì zìxīn!匪特分子的家属亲朋, 应督促犯罪者, 登记自新!)

Smash the imperialist war conspiracy, forge ahead courageously to build our peaceful and happy life! (1950) (Fěnsuì dìguó zhǔyì de zhànzhēng yīnmóu,wéi jiànshè wǒmen hépíng xìngfú de shēnghuó ér fènyǒng qiánjìn!粉碎帝国主义的战争阴谋,为建设我们和平幸福的生活而奋勇前进!)

Produce more! Contribute more! (1951) (Duō shēngchǎn! Duō juānxiàn !多生产! 多捐献!)


After the Land Reforms, the life of the peasants is good (1951)  (Tǔgǎi wánchéng nóngmín shēnghuó hǎo; 土改完成农民生活好)

Great meeting (1951) (Wěidà de huìjiàn; 伟大的会见)
At the end of 1949, Mao travels to Moscow, to negotiate a friendship treaty with Stalin. He is received in the grand halls of the Kremlin, together with his Minister of Foreign Affairs Zhou Enlai (on the right, chatting with the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs Vyacheslav Molotov).


Everybody must take precautions against epidemics to smash the germ warfare of American imperialism! (1952) (Rénrén fángyì, fěnsuì měi dìguó zhǔyì de xìjūn zhàn!人人防疫, 粉碎美帝国主义的细菌战!)

Elect good people to take good care of things (1953)  (Xuǎn hǎorén, bàn hǎoshì; 选好人,办好事)

Study the Soviet Union's advanced economy to build up our nation  (1953) (Xuéxí Sūlián xiànjīn jīngyàn, jiànshè wǒmen de guójiā; 学习苏联先进经验建设我们的国家)

Moving into a new house  (1953) (Bān jìn xīn fángzi; (搬进新房子)


We are proud to participate in the industrialization of our country  (1954) (Wǒmen wéi cānjiā guójiā gōngyèhuà jiànshè ér zìháo; 我们为参加国家工业化建设而自豪)

A morning off (1954) (Jiǎrì de zǎochén; 假日的早晨)

A glorious model for workers (1954) (Guāngróng de shēngchǎn mófàn; 光荣的生产模范)


Warmly love chairman Mao (1955) (Rè’ài Máo Zhǔxí; 熱愛毛主席)

Sleep, do not disturb daddy while he is using his brain (1955) (Shuìba, bié dǎrǎo bàbà dòng nǎojīn; 睡吧别打扰爸爸动脑筋)

Long live the great unity of all the peoples of the nation (1957) (Quánguó gè mínzú dà tuánjié wànsuì; 全国各民族大团结万岁)

Strive to raise the pigs of the commune to be fat and big! (1957) (Yào bǎ shèlǐ de zhū yǎngdé yòuféi yòudà !要把社里的猪养得又肥又大!)

Everybody comes to hunt sparrows (1956) (Dàjiā dū lái dǎ máquè; 大家都来打麻雀)

The industry of the motherland develops so fast it causes Britain to tremble with fear (1957) (Zǔguó gōngyè fēiyuè fāzhǎn xià dé Yīngguó dǎnzhàn xīnjīng; 祖国工业飞跃发展吓得英国胆战心惊)

Strike the battle drum of the Great Leap Forward ever louder (1959) (Bǎ dàyuèjìn de zhàngǔ qiāode gèngxiǎng; 把大跃进的战鼓敲得更响)

The better the dining hall is run, the higher the production spirit (1959) (Shítáng bàndé hǎo, shēngchǎn jìntóu gāo; 食堂办得好,生产劲头高)

Long live Chairman Mao (1964) (Máo Zhǔxí wànsuì; 毛主席万岁)

The East is red (1964)  (Dōngfāng hóng; 东方红)

American imperialism is destined to fail! (1965) (Měidì bìbài !美帝必败!)

The village projectionist (1966)  (nóngcūn fàngyìng yuán; 农村放映员)

Smash the old world, create a new world (1967) (Dǎsuì jiù shìjiè, chuànglì xīn shìjiè;打碎旧世界创立新世界)

Go to the countryside, go to the borders, and go to places the motherland needs us most (1970) (Dào nóngcūn qù, dào biānjiāng qù, dào zǔguó zuì xūyào de dìfāng qù; 到农村去到边疆去到祖国最需要的地方去)

Follow Chairman Mao; Forever make revolution (1967) (Gēnzhe Máo Zhǔxí, yǒngyuǎn nào gémìng; 跟着毛主席,永远闹革命)

Chairman Mao is the red sun in our hearts. (Máo Zhǔxí shì wǒmen xīnzhōng de hóng tàiyáng; 毛主席是我们心中的红太阳)


Long live the great, glorious and always correct Chinese Communist Party (Wěidà de, guāngróng de, zhèngquè de Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng wànsuì !伟大的、光荣的、正确的中国共产党万岁!)

We are linked together with the reddest sun in our heart, Chairman Mao (1968) (Wǒmen xīnzhōng zuìhóng zuìhóng de tàiyáng Máo Zhǔxí hé wǒmen xīnliánxīn; 我们心中最红最红的太阳毛主席和我们心连心)

Chairman Mao is the reddest sun in our hearts. (Máo Zhǔxí shì wǒmen xīnzhōng zuìhóng zuìhóng de hóng tàiyáng; 毛主席是我们心中最红最红的红太阳)

The People’s Liberation Army is the school for Mao Zedong Thought. (Zhōngguó Rénmín Jiěfàngjūn shì Máo Zédōng sīxiǎng dà xuéxiào; 中国人民解放军是毛泽东思想大学校)

Unite for greater victory. (Tuánjié qǐlái zhēngqǔ gèngdà de shènglì; 团结起来争取更大的胜利)

Chairman Mao stays together with us always. (Máo Zhǔxí yǒngyuǎn hé wǒmen zài yīqǐ; 毛主席永远和我们在一起)

Long live the Marxist-Leninist and Mao Zedong Thought. (Mǎliè Zhǔyì Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng wànsuì!马列主义毛泽东思想万岁!)

Long live the great Marxist-Leninist and Mao Zedong Thought. (Wěidà de Mǎkèsī, Lièníng Zhǔyì, Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng wànsuì !伟大的马克思、列宁主义、毛泽东思想万岁!)

Advance victoriously to follow Chairman Mao's revolutionary route (1971) (Yánzhe Máo Zhǔxí gémìng lùxiàn shènglì qiánjìn; 沿着毛主席革命路线胜利前进)

Learn from the valiant flag-bearer of the Great Cultural Revolution, comrade Jiang Qing, and pay her respect! (1967) (Xiàng wénhuà dà gémìng yīngyǒng qíshǒu Jiāng Qīng tóngzhì xuéxí, zhì jìng!向文化大革命英勇棋手江青同志学习、致敬!)

The invincible Mao Zedong Thought illuminates the stage of revolutionary art! (1969) (Zhànwúbúshèng de Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng zhàoliàng le gémìng yìshù wǔtái!战无不胜的毛泽东思想照亮了革命艺术舞台!)

Greet the 1970s with new victories of revolution and production (1970) (Yòng gémìng hé shēngchǎn de xīn shènglì yíngjiē qīshí niándài!用革命和生产的新胜利迎接七十年代!)

We will not attack unless we are attacked; if we are attacked, we will certainly counterattack (1970) (Rén bú fàn wǒ, wǒ bú fàn rén, rén ruò fàn wǒ,wǒ bì fàn rén; 人不犯我,我不犯人, 人若犯我,我必犯人)

Win honor for our great leader Chairman Mao, bring credit to our socialist motherland (1970) (Wéi wěidà lǐngxiù Máo Zhǔxí zhēngguāng, wéi wěidà shèhuì zhǔyì zǔguó zhēngguāng; 为伟大领袖毛主席争光, 为伟大社会主义祖国争光)

Use and study Chairman Mao's glorious philosophy extensively (1971) (Dàxué dàyòng Máo Zhǔxí guānghuī zhéxué sīxiǎng; 大学大用毛主席光辉哲学思想)

Chairman Mao is the great savior of the world's revolutionary people  (1968) (Máo Zhǔxí shì shìjiè gémìng rénmín de dà jiùxīng; 毛主席是世界革命人民的大救星)

Carry out birth planning for the revolution  (1974) (Wéi gémìng shíxíng jìhuá shēngyù; 为革命实行计划生育)
The completion of the bridge over the Yangtze at Nanjing is a great victory of Mao Zedong Thought! (1975) (Nánjīng Chángjiāng Dàqiáo de jiànchéng shì Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng de wěidà shènglì !南京长江大桥的建成是毛泽东思想的伟大胜利!)

Limitless confidence  (1977)  (Wúxiàn xìnrèn; 无限信任)
"With you in charge, I am at ease (Nǐ bànshì,wǒ fàngxīn; 你办事,我放心)", Mao writes on a piece of paper that he hands over to Hua Guofeng. Hua uses this document - which may or may not be authentic - to prove Mao really appointed him as successor.

The whole world joins in the jubilation (1955) (Pǔ tiān tóng qìng; 普天同庆)

The Founding of the nation (1964)

After Mao

Carry out Chairman Mao's intentions and carry the proletarian revolutionary cause through to the end (1976) (Jìchéng Máo Zhǔxí de yízhì,bǎ wúchǎn jiējí gémìng shìyè jìnxíng dàodǐ!继承毛主席的遗志,把无产阶级革命事业进行到底!)



Turn grief into strength, carry out Chairman Mao's intentions and carry the proletarian revolutionary cause through to the end (1976) (Huà bēitòng wéi lìliàng, jìchéng Máo Zhǔxí yízhì,bǎ wúchǎn jiējí gémìng shìyè jìnxíng dàodǐ!化悲痛为力量,继承毛主席遗志,把无产阶级革命事业进行到底)


Laying the foundation (1977) (diàn jī; 奠基)



Laying the foundation (1978) (diàn jī; 奠基)


The shared dream of a billion people. Warmly celebrate the victorious completion of the Chairman Mao Memorial Hall (1977) (Yìwàn rénmín de gòngtóng xīnyuàn,rèliè qìngzhù Máo Zhǔxí Jìniàntáng shènglì jiànchéng;亿万人民的共同心愿,热烈庆祝毛主席纪念堂胜利建成。)


Pines and willows are forever green. Flowers blossom red generation after generation (1978) (Sōngbǎi wànnián qīng,huākāi dàidài hóng; 松柏万年青,花开代代红)
Chairman Mao's mausoleum (1979) (Máo Zhǔxí Jìniàntáng;毛主席纪念堂)

Follow the unfinished lifework of Chairman Mao and carry the proletarian revolution forward. (Jìchéng Máo Zhǔxí de yízhì,bǎ wúchǎn jiējí gémìng shìyè jìnxíng dàodǐ!继承毛主席的遗志,把无产阶级革命事业进行到底!)


Sending off the People's Liberation Army to liberate Taiwan! Carry out the revolutionary war to the end! (1950) (Huānsòng Rénmín Jiěfàngjūn,dǎdào Táiwān qù!Bǎ gémìng zhànzhēng jìnxíng dàodǐ!欢送人民解放军,打到台湾去!把革命战争进行到底!)

Save our Taiwanese compatriots! (1954) (Zhěngjiù Táiwān tóngbāo!拯救台湾同胞!)


We will certainly liberate Taiwan (1955) (Wǒmen yīdìng yào jiěfàng Táiwān; 我们一定要解放台湾)

Resolutely liberate Taiwan, save the Taiwanese people from their misery! (1955) (Jiānjué jiěfàng Táiwān , zhěngjiù kǔnán zhōng de Táiwān rénmín!坚决解放台湾, 拯救苦难中的台湾人民!)

We will definitely liberate Taiwan! (1971) (Yīdìng yào jiěfàng Táiwān;一定要解放台湾!)


The loving care of the motherland (1976) (Zǔguó de guānhuái; 祖国的关怀)


Léi Fēng (雷锋)

It would be difficult to talk about the Cult of Mao without mentioning the PLA soldier Lei Feng (1940-62). Before Lei died after being hit by an army truck at the age of 21, few people outside of his family and friends had ever heard of him. But in the hands of Lin Biao, the master propagandist, that would soon change. He was used at the center of a propaganda drive to repair the damage done to Mao’s reputation following the Great Leap Forward. Held up as the model citizen who sacrificed himself in his devotion to the Party, the nation was repeatedly encouraged to "Follow the examples of Comrade Lei Feng" (Xiàng Léi Fēng tóngzhì xuéxí; 向雷锋同志学习). His diaries were packed full of reverence and glowing admiration for Mao and the desire to attain a pure revolutionary spirit through his good deeds. Although it’s now generally regarded that the patriotic character Lei Feng, as portrayed to the nation, never actually existed, he remains a symbolic example of good deeds and devotion.

Follow Lei Feng's example; love the Party, love Socialism, love the people". (Xuéxí Léi Fēng hǎo bǎngyàng,rè’ài dǎng,rè’ài shèhuì zhǔyì,rè’ài rénmín; 学习雷锋好榜样,热爱党,热爱社会主义,热爱人民)

Learning from comrade Lei Feng (1963) (Xiàng Léi Fēng tóngzhì xuéxí; 向雷锋同志学习)
Lei Feng portraits are hanging in most schools. The text on the left is a calligraphy by Mao: "Learn from Comrade Lei Feng".

Uncle Lei Feng tells revolutionary stories (1965) (Léi Fēng shūshū jiǎng gémìng gùshì; 雷锋叔叔讲革命故事)

Learn from Comrade Lei Feng. (Xiàng Léi Fēng tóngzhì xuéxí; 向雷锋同志学习)


Learn from Lei Feng, and serve the people wholeheartedly. (Xuéxí Léi Fēng, quánxīn quányì wèi rénmín fúwù; 学习雷锋, 全心全意为人民服务)


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